【双语】公众演讲小诀窍——Presentation Tips for Public Speaking

丘吉尔说“你能面对多少人,未来就有多大的成就。

可见公众演讲的重要性。

 

而林肯说“演说就是讲故事,就是通过吸引人的故事来说明观点。

西德尼·哈里斯说“世界上更多的麻烦来自于轻率的回答,而不是莽撞的发问。

如何讲好一个故事,如何更好地回答观众的问题?这些都是演讲者需要去思考的问题。

可见演讲者需要从不同的角度去精进自己的演讲水平。因此演讲这条路需要通过很多次的实践之后,总结经验,形成自己的演讲风格。

 

Presentation Tips for Public Speaking

演讲前要有的意识

Know the needs of your audienceand match your contents to their needs. Know your material thoroughly. Put what you have to say in a logical sequence. Ensure your speech will be captivating to your audience as well as worth their time and attention. Practice and rehearse your speech at home or where you can be at ease and comfortable, in front of a mirror, your family, friends or colleagues. Use a tape-recorder and listen to yourself. Videotape your presentation and analyze it. Know what your strong and weak points are. Emphasize your strong points during your presentation.

 

(明确主题)知道观众想听什么,讲他们想听的。在反复熟悉好了自己要讲的内容之后,再以清晰的思路把内容呈现出来。同时要确保你的演讲能够抓住观众的眼球,并让他们觉得花时间来听你的演讲是值得的。

练习的时候,在家里练或是其它能让你放松下来的地方,站在镜子前,或是让家人、朋友、同事当你的观众,反复排练。甚至可以用录音机或是录像机把演讲录下来,听一听、分析分析,搞清楚自己的优势和弱点分别是什么。才能在演讲过程中有选择性地突出自己的优势。

When you are presenting in front of an audience, you are performing as an actor is on stage. How you are being perceived is very important.

 

Dress appropriately for the occasion. Be solemn if your topic is serious. Present the desired image to your audience. Look pleasant, enthusiastic, confident, proud, but not arrogant. Remain calm. Appear relaxed, even if you feel nervous. Speak slowly, enunciate clearly, and show appropriate emotion and feeling relating to your topic. Establish rapport with your audience.

 

Speak to the person farthest away from you to ensure your voice is loud enough to project to the back of the room. Vary the tone of your voice and dramatize if necessary.

 

当你站在台上演讲的时候,其实你就是一名演员——扮演着“演讲者”这个角色。那么如何让观众注意到你呢?

首先要着装得体;如果演讲主题严肃的话你自己首先就得严肃起来;展示观众感兴趣的图片。

 

保持好的精神头、热情洋溢,信心十足但不要自大;要冷静,就算你很紧张、也要呈现出放松的状态。

 

语速要放慢、咬字要清楚,面部表情和情感表现要符合演讲主题。为你和观众之间营造一种融洽和谐的氛围。

声音洪亮、确保最后一排的人也能听到你的讲话,不要让他们认为自己被忽略了。注意说话的声调要随时变化、必要的时候可以夸张一点。

Body language is important. Standing, walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. 

 

Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation, sound clips, or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic.

 

肢体语言很重要。不管是行走还是站立时的手势或面部表情都要合时合宜,如果你站直的时候,只是低着头把演讲内容念出来,那宁可坐着。

 

必要时利用视听设备或者道具,以优化呈现效果。演讲前确保自己能够熟练运用报告软件如幻灯片播放。但不要过度使用动画、音频片段或者是艳丽的色彩,让观众看得头晕目眩,尤其是和主题不符的。

If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience, change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so.

 

Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation. If you are short of time, know what can be safely left out. If you have extra time, know what could be effectively added. Always be prepared for the unexpected.

 

要时刻为意外情况做好准备:如果你提前准备的环节很明显没有让观众弄明白你到底在说什么,这时候如果你有更充足的准备,就可以改变策略。记住:一次成功报告的关键在于互动,如果时间不够充足,你要知道什么样的内容是一定没问题的;如果还有额外的时间,你要知道什么内容是可以补充讲的。

 

演讲过程中要注意的点

Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying. Persuade your audience effectively. Speak loudly and clearly. Sound confident. Do not mumble. If you made an error, correct it, and continue. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely.

 

1、自信大方

 

讲话的时候语气要笃定,要让大家看得出来你很确信你所讲的内容,才能更好地说服观众。

声音洪亮、口齿清晰、保持自信。如果出错了,纠正过来,继续讲下面的内容。不要找借口,也没有必要一再道歉。

The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper, i.e. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments, accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (re-state thesis, summary, and logical conclusion).

 

2、结构清晰

 

口头陈述的内容要与文字材料相符,并且逻辑顺序为介绍(主旨)——主体(有力的论点支撑、提供准确的最新信息)——结论(重申主旨、总结和结论)

Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. Use the 3-second method, e.g. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience, and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved. Speak to your audience, listen to their questions, respond to their reactions, adjust and adapt.

 

3、交流和互动的重要性

 

不要一直盯着稿子念,偶尔看一眼是可以的。要和观众进行眼神交流,能让他们具有参与感。有三种方法:一是直视某一个观众的眼睛,每次三秒;二是一次和一片观众眼神交流;三是一边讲一边抬头看观众。跟观众说话、听取他们的问题、并对此作出回应,因此需要随时调整状态以适应当下的氛围。

Pause. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Don’t race through your presentation and leave your audience, as well as yourself, feeling out of breath.

 

4、停顿

 

给你自己和观众留一点反应和思考的时间。在报告过程中,不要像在赛跑一样,让观众以及你自己都喘不上气。

Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly, but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same.

 

5、让演讲变得有趣

 

如何让观众始终在整个报告过程中都保持兴趣是一个值得思考的问题。可能的话,在合适的时候加入一点幽默的料。记住:一场别开生面的演讲会让人觉得时间过得飞快,但是一场枯燥的演讲会让人觉得很长以致无法忍受。

When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation, be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. If possible, have an emergency backup system readily available. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience, whiteboard, blackboard, lighting, location of projection screen, sound system, etc. are suitable for your presentation.

 

6、确认好设备

 

提前确认观众的座位安排、白板、黑板、灯光、投影仪屏幕、声音系统等,确保作报告时万无一失。如果你打算用视听设备来给报告加分,那在正式报告之前要确保所有的设备都能正常运作且操作不混乱。有条件的话,准备一些紧急备份,以便随时可用。

Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them.

 

7、准备书面材料

 

准备好要分发的材料,在合适的时候给观众。提前告诉他们你为他们准备了此次报告的提纲,以免他们做一些不必要的笔记。分发给观众的文件内容上,文字不要过于冗长,否则他们看起来会很难受的。

Know when to STOP talking. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. Just as you don’t use unnecessary words in your written paper, you don’t bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation. To end your presentation, summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. Remember, however, that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Do not belabor your closing remarks.

 

7、控制时间

 

掐算好报告结束的时间。在家里练习的时候用计时器算好你的报告时间。书面报告中不要使用不必要的语句;口语表达中尽量不要重复用语。结束报告的时候,总结一下你的主要论点,内容就和书面报告里的“总结”部分差不多。无论如何要记住:口语是用来听的、正式的书面用语是用来看的,这两者始终有区别。

以有趣的名言或是适宜的笑话来结束报告,作为点睛之笔。给听众留下一个好的印象或是圆满完成了的感觉。说结束语的时候不要啰嗦。

词汇

logical sequence:逻辑顺序

 

captivating  美 [‘kæptɪ.veɪtɪŋ]  英 [‘kæptɪ.veɪtɪŋ]

迷人的;有魅力的;有吸引力的(taking all your attention; very attractive and interesting

Perceive 美 [pər’siv] 英 [pə(r)’siːv]

注意到;意识到;察觉到(to notice or become aware of sth

将…理解为;将…视为;认为(to understand or think of sb/sth in a particular way

 

Solemn 美 [‘sɑləm] 英 [‘sɒləm]

冷峻的;表情严肃的(not happy or smiling

庄严的;严正的;郑重的(done, said, etc. in a very serious and sincere way

庄严的;隆重的(performed in a serious way

audio-visual aids

视听设备

 

punch line

指一整段笑话中最后几句最能引人发笑的点睛之笔

妙语;好笑的部分;关键人物

原文:A Research Guide for Students

编辑翻译:Tiff

始发于微信公众号:NECCS

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